[8]​ En su lugar escogió el pequeño atolón de Midway, ubicado en el extremo norte de Hawái, a unos 2100 kilómetros de la isla de Oahu. Consequently, even the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) continued to believe, for at least a short time, that the fleet was in good condition. Yamamoto, a bordo del Yamato, asumió que Nagumo había recibido la misma información desde Tokio y no se comunicó con él por radio para no revelar su posición. El almirante Nagumo lanzó su primer ataque a la isla a las 4:30 del 4 de junio de 1942 con un total de 108 aviones de combate. [71]​ Media hora después de iniciar este ataque, un avión de reconocimiento de largo alcance enviado tardíamente desde el crucero Tone informó de la presencia de una flota enemiga de tamaño considerable al este. Sailors, including Ensign John d'Arc Lorenz called it an incalculable inspiration: "For the first time I realized what the flag meant: all of us—a million faces—all our effort—a whisper of encouragement. These efforts continued and were expanded throughout the war in both the Pacific and Atlantic theaters. [31]​ Esta dispersión limitó la disponibilidad de buques rápidos para escoltar los portaaviones de la Fuerza de Ataque, y menos cañones antiaéreos para protegerlos. Because of the extreme depth of the ocean in the area of the battle (more than 17,000 ft or 5,200 m), researching the battlefield has presented extraordinary difficulties. Because of this, preliminary planning for the second phase of operations commenced as early as January 1942. John Ford directed two films about the events: the 18-minute 1942 Movietone News documentary (released by the War Activities Committee) The Battle of Midway,[203] which received the 1942 Academy Award for Best Documentary; and the eight-minute documentary Torpedo Squadron 8, which describes the heroism of Torpedo Squadron 8 of the USS Hornet. A picket line of Japanese submarines was late getting into position (partly because of Yamamoto's haste), which let the American carriers reach their assembly point northeast of Midway (known as "Point Luck") without being detected. [92][93], While the Japanese were able to launch 108 aircraft in just seven minutes, it took Enterprise and Hornet over an hour to launch 117. El nuevo código, que tardó varios días en ser descifrado, entró en uso el 24 de mayo, pero para ese entonces los mensajes más importantes ya se habían decodificado. Out of Obscurity", "What If Japan Had Won The Battle of Midway? Poor radio communications with the fighter aircraft inhibited effective command and control of the CAP. Richard Humble- La Flota de Altamar japonesa. Browning, therefore, suggested a launch time of 07:00, giving the carriers an hour to close on the Japanese at 25 knots (46 km/h; 29 mph). [102][117][nb 3], Simultaneously, Yorktown's VB-3, commanded by Max Leslie, went for Sōryū, scoring at least three hits and causing extensive damage. Los japoneses, por el contrario, incluso después de que comenzara la batalla desconocían la verdadera fuerza y disposición de su oponente. Unfortunately sold out. Rear Admiral Tamon Yamaguchi, leading Carrier Division 2 (Hiryū and Sōryū), recommended that Nagumo strike immediately with the forces at hand: 16 Aichi D3A1 dive bombers on Sōryū and 18 on Hiryū, and half the ready cover patrol aircraft. El énfasis en dispersar la flota hizo que ninguna formación estuviese oportunamente disponible para ofrecer apoyo a las demás. Las reparaciones continuaron incluso una vez que salió del astillero, a cargo de un equipo que seguía a bordo del USS Vestal, un buque de reparación dañado en el ataque a Pearl Harbor. [138] Sighting several ships, neither Murphy nor his executive officer, Edward Spruance (son of Admiral Spruance), could identify them. Torpedo Five (VT-5) was also replaced by Torpedo Three (VT-3). Because of strategic disagreements between the Imperial Army (IJA) and Imperial Navy (IJN), and fighting between the Navy's GHQ and Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's Combined Fleet, a follow-up strategy was not formed until April 1942. Los bombarderos estadounidenses —cuya base estaba en la isla— despegaron antes de ser dañados por los japoneses, e hicieron varios ataques contra la flota nipona. 1615 - Angkatan tentera di bawah Syogun Tokugawa Ieyasu menawan Istana kota Osaka (gambar) di Jepun. The plump silhouettes of the American Dauntless dive-bombers quickly grew larger, and then a number of black objects suddenly floated eerily from their wings. [129], Late in the afternoon, a Yorktown scout aircraft located Hiryū, prompting Enterprise to launch a final strike of 24 dive bombers (including six SBDs from VS-6, four SBDs from VB-6, and 14 SBDs from Yorktown's VB-3). [151], Historian Samuel E. Morison noted in 1949 that Spruance was subjected to much criticism for not pursuing the retreating Japanese, thus allowing their surface fleet to escape. Midway fue el debut de este avión, el de mayor tamaño de los utilizados en los portaaviones norteamericanos durante la IIGM. [199], An escort carrier, USS Midway (CVE-63) was commissioned on 17 August 1943. [51] Since early 1942, the U.S. had been decoding messages stating that there would soon be an operation at objective "AF". The less severely damaged Mikuma slowed to 12 knots (22 km/h; 14 mph) to keep pace. The initial Japanese attack did not succeed in neutralizing Midway: American bombers could still use the airbase to refuel and attack the Japanese invasion force, and most of Midway's land-based defenses were intact. Aunque tradicionalmente se considera que la operación fue una distracción para mantener a los estadounidenses alejados del Midway, de acuerdo al plan original, el ataque a las islas y al atolón debían iniciar simultáneamente, pero la fuerza operativa de Nagumo se retrasó un día en la navegación y eso causó que la operación en las Aleutianas iniciara el día antes. Las cifras de las víctimas japonesas durante la batalla fueron recopiladas por Sawaichi Hisae, en su libro, La referencia utiliza el parámetro obsoleto. [19]​, Yamamoto creía que era necesario un engaño para llevar a la flota estadounidense a una situación fatalmente arriesgada. The plan was handicapped by faulty Japanese assumptions of the American reaction and poor initial dispositions. [25], In order to obtain support from the Imperial Japanese Army for the Midway operation, the Imperial Japanese Navy agreed to support their invasion of the United States through the Aleutian Islands of Attu and Kiska, part of the organized incorporated Alaska Territory. La batalla de Midway (en japonés ミッドウェー海戦; rōmaji: «Middowē Kaisen») fue un combate aeronaval que se libró entre los días 4 y 7 de junio de 1942 en el teatro del Pacífico durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial. [15]​[16]​[17]​ El diseño consideraba datos de inteligencia que sugerían que el USS Enterprise y el USS Hornet eran los únicos portaaviones estadounidenses disponibles en la Flota del Pacífico. The ship was remarkably intact for a vessel that had sunk in 1942; much of the original equipment and even the original paint scheme were still visible. Action-filled war drama focusing on the decisive battle between the Japanese and the Americans at the Midway Islands in 1942. The two squadrons from Enterprise (VB-6 and VS-6) were running low on fuel because of the time spent looking for the enemy. [45]​ Nimitz sabía que ellos habían renunciado a su ventaja numérica al dividir sus naves en cuatro grupos operativos separados, demasiado separados para darse apoyo mutuamente. Only Emperor Hirohito and the highest Navy command personnel were accurately informed of the carrier and pilot losses. [6][7][8] The U.S. Navy under Admirals Chester W. Nimitz, Frank J. Fletcher, and Raymond A. Spruance defeated an attacking fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy under Admirals Isoroku Yamamoto, Chūichi Nagumo, and Nobutake Kondō near Midway Atoll, inflicting devastating damage on the Japanese fleet that rendered their aircraft carriers irreparable. Por esto, Midway es generalmente considerada la batalla más importante de la guerra del Pacífico y una de las más decisivas de la Segunda Guerra Mundial.[2]​[3]​. Delivery date: between Thursday, October 8 and Monday, October 12. Los japoneses perdieron cuatro portaaviones, un crucero pesado y unas 240 aeronaves, lo que debilitó enormemente a la Armada Imperial Japonesa, mientras que los estadounidenses perdieron solo un portaviones y un destructor. Instructors from the Yokosuka Air Corps were employed in an effort to make up the shortfall. Vino a sustituir al TBD "Devastator", de inferiores características, al que acompañó dando los golpes de gracia a los buque japoneses durante la batalla. [204][205][206] Ford, who was a Navy Reserve Commander at the time, was present on Midway Atoll's power plant at Sand Island during the Japanese attack and filmed it. After receiving medical care, at least one of these sailors cooperated during interrogation and provided intelligence. Despite Hiryū being defended by a strong cover of more than a dozen Zero fighters, the attack by Enterprise and orphaned Yorktown aircraft launched from Enterprise was successful: four bombs (possibly five) hit Hiryū, leaving her ablaze and unable to operate aircraft. [53] No Japanese radio operators who intercepted the message seemed concerned that the Americans were broadcasting uncoded that a major naval installation close to the Japanese threat ring was having a water shortage, which could have tipped off Japanese intelligence officers that it was a deliberate attempt at deception. It was intended only for the highest echelons in the Japanese Navy and government and was guarded closely throughout the war. Whereas many earlier historical accounts considered the Aleutians operation as a feint to draw American forces away, according to the original Japanese battle plan, AL was intended to be launched simultaneously with the attack on Midway. Other sources claim a stern hit, but Parshall and Tully make a case for a near miss, because of rudder damage from a high explosive bomb. [79], Nagumo quickly reversed his order to re-arm the bombers with general-purpose bombs and demanded that the scout plane ascertain the composition of the American force. Ya tenía dos portaaviones de la fuerza operativa del vicealmirante William F. Halsey, el Enterprise y el Hornet, pero a causa de una dermatitis Halsey tuvo que ser reemplazado por el contraalmirante Raymond Spruance, el comandante de su escolta. The raid, while militarily insignificant, was a shock to the Japanese and showed the existence of a gap in the defenses around the Japanese home islands as well as the vulnerability of Japanese territory to American bombers. This was one of the carriers from Task Force 16. Chicago Municipal Airport, important to the war effort in World War II, was renamed Chicago Midway International Airport (or simply Midway Airport) in 1949 in honor of the battle. [86], Japanese carrier doctrine preferred the launching of fully constituted strikes rather than piecemeal attacks. [190], Both the United States and Japan accelerated the training of aircrew, but the United States had a more effective pilot rotation system, which meant that more veterans survived and went on to training or command billets, where they were able to pass on lessons they had learned in combat to trainees, instead of remaining in combat, where errors were more likely to be fatal. ", "VP-44 at Ford Island and the Battle of Midway", Interrogation of: Captain Toyama, Yasumi, IJN; Chief of Staff Second Destroyer Squadron, flagship Jintsu (CL), at Midway, "Office of Naval Intelligence Combat Narrative: "Midway's Attack on the Enemy Carriers, "Recollections of Lieutenant George Gay, USNR", "Douglas TBD Devastator Torpedo Bomber (1937)", "The Hard Lessons of World War II Torpedo Failures", "IJN Kirishima: Tabular Record of Movement", "HIJMS Nagara: Tabular Record of Movement", Dictionary of American Naval Fighting Ships, The Japanese Story of the Battle of Midway (a Translation), "Navy.togetherweserved: Osmus, Wesley, ENS", "Navy.togetherweserved: O'Flaherty, Frank Woodrow, ENS", "Navy.togetherweserved: Gaido, Bruno Peter, PO1", "War crimes of the Imperial Japanese Navy", "Naval History and Heritage Command, Interrogation of Japanese Prisoners", "Naval History and Heritage Command, Battle of Midway", "Naval History and Heritage Command, Survivors of Hiryu", "The Turning Point of the Pacific War: Two Views", "Operation Vengeance: The Mission to Kill Admiral Yamamoto", "A brief history of the U.S.S. [48]​[49]​ No obstante, la Primera Fuerza de Ataque navegó con 248 aviones disponibles en los cuatro portaaviones —60 en el Akagi, 74 en el Kaga, 57 en el Hiryū y 57 en el Sōryū. Título original: Dauntless: The Battle of Midway. Yorktown Boulevard leading away from the strip was named for the U.S. carrier sunk in the battle. Dauntless: L'Enfer de Midway: Germany (DVD title) Schlacht um Midway - Entscheidung im Pazifik: Italy: Dauntless - La battaglia di Midway: Norway (DVD title) The Battle of Midway… [162], Replacement pilots were pushed through an abbreviated training regimen in order to meet the short-term needs of the fleet. He was killed when his aircraft crashed near Midway Island. "[124] Thirteen Japanese dive bombers and three escorting fighters were lost in this attack (two escorting fighters turned back early after they were damaged attacking some of Enterprise's SBDs returning from their attack on the Japanese carriers). [21]​ Esta táctica era practicada por casi todas las armadas más importantes de la época. [119][nb 4], Hiryū, the sole surviving Japanese aircraft carrier, wasted little time in counterattacking. by Mike Phillips. Al principio todos se preguntaban que significaba o qué lugar era «AF», pero más tarde el comandante Joseph Rochefort y su equipo en la estación HYPO pudieron confirmar que se trataba de Midway. Esto se debió en parte a la fatiga, ya que los portaaviones no habían detenido sus operaciones desde el ataque a Pearl Harbor, entre las que se contaban las incursiones en Darwin y el océano Índico. [102] Remarkably, senior Navy and Bureau of Ordnance officers never questioned why half a dozen torpedoes, released so close to the Japanese carriers, produced no results. [157], The Japanese public and much of the military command structure were kept in the dark about the extent of the defeat: Japanese news announced a great victory. At 06:20, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed and heavily damaged the U.S. base. [70][71] A B-26 that had been seriously damaged by anti-aircraft fire didn't pull out of its run, and instead headed directly for Akagi's bridge. Although their crews reported hitting four ships,[61] none of the bombs actually hit anything and no significant damage was inflicted. Slaget var fremkaldt af Japan og varede fra 4. til 7. juni 1942 . Despite being asked to abandon the ship, Nagumo didn’t move and was reluctant to leave the Akagi, just muttering, “It's not time yet.” Nagumo's chief of staff, Rear Admiral Ryūnosuke Kusaka, was able to persuade him to leave the critically damaged Akagi. 307 Americans had been killed, including Major General Clarence L. Tinker, Commander, 7th Air Force, who personally led a bomber strike from Hawaii against the retreating Japanese forces on 7 June. [23]​ Por ejemplo, a pesar de que se esperaba que los portaaviones de Nagumo soportaran la peor parte de los contraataques, los únicos buques de la flota que eran más grandes que los doce destructores que los encubrían eran dos acorazados rápidos de clase Kongō, dos cruceros pesados y un crucero ligero. [128], News of the two strikes, with the mistaken reports that each had sunk an American carrier, greatly improved Japanese morale. Simultaneously, he detached a cruiser raiding force to bombard the island. Naval Oceanographic Office searched for the Japanese aircraft carriers. Esta página se editó por última vez el 24 nov 2020 a las 10:30. ¡Compre ahora! In the end, Nagumo decided to wait for his first strike force to land, then launch the reserve, which would by then be properly armed with torpedoes. Directed by Mike Phillips. The IJN's fleet combat air patrol (CAP) consisted of too few fighter aircraft and was hampered by an inadequate early warning system, including a lack of radar. Although the fleet carrier Zuikaku escaped the battle undamaged, she had lost almost half her air group, and was in port in Kure awaiting replacement planes and pilots. The crew of the Petrel research vessel, in conjunction with the U.S. Navy, revealed on 18 October 2019 that it had found the Japanese carrier Kaga lying 5.4 km beneath the waves. In the late afternoon of 6 June, the Japanese submarine I-168, which had managed to slip through the cordon of destroyers (possibly because of the large amount of debris in the water), fired a salvo of torpedoes, two of which struck Yorktown. [81]​[82]​ Con aviones similares el segundo asalto acabó casi de la misma manera: la flota aérea atacante destruida casi en su totalidad y la japonesa prácticamente intacta. Within the first few minutes, two F4Fs and 13 F2As were destroyed, while most of the surviving U.S. planes were damaged, with only two remaining airworthy. The Japanese operations in the Aleutian Islands (Operation AL) removed yet more ships that could otherwise have augmented the force striking Midway. This led to a sharp decline in the quality of the aviators produced. Re-arming had been underway for about 30 minutes when, at 07:40,[78] the delayed scout plane from Tone signaled that it had sighted a sizable American naval force to the east, but neglected to describe its composition. The few surviving aircraft were all recovered aboard Hiryū. [135] It was fortunate for the U.S. that Spruance did not pursue, for had he come in contact with Yamamoto's heavy ships, including Yamato, in the dark and considering the Japanese Navy's superiority in night-attack tactics at the time, there is a very high probability his cruisers would have been overwhelmed and his carriers sunk. [182] The Guadalcanal Campaign is also regarded by some as a turning point in the Pacific War. Midway is a 2019 American epic war film about the Battle of Midway, a turning point in the Pacific Theater of World War II. Product Details. Spruance, a former submarine commander, was "understandably furious" at the vagueness of Murphy's report, as it provided him with little more than suspicion and no concrete information on which to make his preparations. [42] In addition, many of the aircraft being used during the June 1942 operations had been operational since late November 1941 and, although they were well-maintained, many were almost worn out and had become increasingly unreliable. [62] Early the following morning, the Japanese oil tanker Akebono Maru sustained the first hit when a torpedo from an attacking PBY struck her around 01:00. American anti-aircraft fire was intense and accurate, destroying three additional Japanese aircraft and damaging many more. 1792 - Kapten George Vancouver menuntut Selat Puget di Barat Laut Pasifik untuk Kerajaan Great Britain. Shortly afterward, the ship turned over onto her port side, and lay that way, revealing the torpedo hole in her starboard bilge—the result of the submarine attack. Nimitz calculated that the aircraft on his three carriers, plus those on Midway Island, gave the U.S. rough parity with Yamamoto's four carriers, mainly because American carrier air groups were larger than Japanese ones. In it, one of the more striking revelations is the comment on the Mobile Force Commander's (Nagumo's) estimates: "The enemy is not aware of our plans (we were not discovered until early in the morning of the 5th at the earliest). [122] All three carriers remained temporarily afloat, as none had suffered damage below the waterline, other than the rudder damage to Akagi caused by the near miss close astern. Los primeros aviones enviados para atacar a los japoneses tuvieron dificultades para encontrarlos en la vastedad del océano, incluso con las coordenadas que habían entregado las patrullas de observación, pero cuando finalmente se toparon con ellos aconteció una de las mayores acciones de sacrificio realizadas en una batalla perdida que, sin embargo, se transformaría en una victoria. This made it unlikely that they would be effective in an airstrike against the Japanese battleships, even if they had managed to catch them during the daytime. [nb 5]. Nel giugno del 1942, sei mesi dopo la sua vittoria a Pearl Harbor, la marina imperiale giapponese preparò una nuova offensiva per annientare le forze aeree e … Finally, much of Yamamoto's planning, coinciding with the general feeling among the Japanese leadership at the time, was based on a gross misjudgment of American morale, which was believed to be debilitated from the string of Japanese victories in the preceding months. Condition: New. Consistían en lentos caza-torpederos Douglas TBD Devastator que se lanzaron en fila contra los portaaviones casi a la superficie del mar. [193], The Battle of Midway redefined the central importance of air superiority for the remainder of the war when the Japanese suddenly lost their four main aircraft carriers and were forced to return home. Despite a scuttling attempt by a Japanese destroyer that hit her with a torpedo and then departed quickly, Hiryū stayed afloat for several more hours. WWII carrier-versus-carrier engagements between American and Japanese naval forces: This page was last edited on 22 December 2020, at 06:03. Yamamoto además ubicó al "grueso" de la Flota combinada a más de 500 km de distancia, dejándolo sin posibilidad de una rápida intervención en caso de contactar con fuerzas enemigas. La Fuerza Aérea contribuyó con un escuadrón de diecisiete Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress y cuatro Martin B-26 Marauder equipados con torpedos. Su grupo de acorazados y cruceros de apoyo siguió a los portaaviones del vicealmirante Chūichi Nagumo a varios cientos de kilómetros. [47]​, De este modo, la 5.ª División de Portaaviones —que tenía los dos más avanzados de la Kidō Butai— no estaría disponible, por lo que el vicealmirante Nagumo tenía solo dos tercios de los portaviones a su disposición: el Kaga y el Akagi de la 1.ª División, junto al Hiryū y el Sōryū de la 2.ª División. Las misiones de reconocimiento japonesas fueron muy poco efectivas a causa de los pocos aviones que tuvieron que cubrir extensas áreas de búsqueda y del mal tiempo. [40] Nonetheless, the First Carrier Strike Force sailed with 248 available aircraft on the four carriers (60 on Akagi, 74 on Kaga (B5N2 squadron oversized), 57 on Hiryū and 57 on Sōryū). El 5.º Escuadrón de Exploración (VS-5) fue remplazado por el 3.er Escuadrón Bombardero (VB-3) del USS Saratoga; el 5.º Escuadrón Torpedero (VT-5) se remplazó por el 3.er Escuadrón (VT-3); el 3.er Escuadrón de Caza (VF-3) se reconstituyó para remplazar al 42.° Escuadrón (VF-42), con dieciséis pilotos del VF-42 y once del VF-3 y el teniente comandante John S. Thach al mando. Algunos miembros de la tripulación no tenían experiencia, lo que pudo haber contribuido a un accidente en el que murió el teniente comandante Donald Lovelace, el oficial ejecutivo de Thach. El principal caza transportado era el rápido y altamente maniobrable Mitsubishi A6M «Zero». This was a result of the attacks from Midway, as well as of the morning flight leader's recommendation of a second strike. [62], At 04:30 on 4 June, Nagumo launched his initial attack on Midway itself, consisting of 36 Aichi D3A dive bombers and 36 Nakajima B5N torpedo bombers, escorted by 36 Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters. Solo el emperador Hirohito fue informado de los detalles de lo acontecido, quien prefirió mantenerlo en secreto ante el ejército y la opinión pública, e hizo que los planificadores militares continuasen por algún tiempo elaborando sus ataques suponiendo que la flota aeronaval del Japón seguía siendo poderosa. Spruance once again withdrew to the east to refuel his destroyers and rendezvous with the carrier Saratoga, which was ferrying much-needed replacement aircraft. Por su parte, y pese a las grandes pérdidas, el almirante Yamamoto decidió inicialmente continuar con sus esfuerzos para ocupar Midway y envió sus navíos de batalla en busca de los portaaviones estadounidenses, al mismo tiempo que una flota de cruceros era desplegada para bombardear la isla. Pertempuran Midway adalah pertempuran laut besar yang dianggap sebagai peristiwa paling penting dalam medan Perang Pasifik Perang Dunia II. Four Japanese and three American aircraft carriers participated in the battle. Entre tanto, los pilotos estadounidenses consiguieron tres importantes resultados: primero, obligaron a los portaaviones nipones a navegar en círculos y hacer maniobras para evitar los torpedos, lo que les impidió tomar posiciones definitivas para el lanzamiento de sus aviones; segundo, obligaron a los Zero a gastar casi toda su munición y combustible mientras estos intentaban derribarlos, y tercero, pusieron la escolta aérea de los portaaviones en cotas de vuelo a baja altura, fuera de posición para así intentar defenderlos de algún otro ataque. The Yorktown squadron (VB-3) had flown just behind VT-3, but elected to attack from a different course. Uncertain of whether they were friendly or not and unwilling to approach any closer to verify their heading or type, Murphy decided to send a vague report of "four large ships" to Admiral Robert English, Commander, Submarine Force, Pacific Fleet (COMSUBPAC). Ambos bandos sufrieron pérdidas importantes. Sin embargo, era la flota enviada a bombardear Midway, compuesta por cuatro cruceros y dos destructores, que poco después recibieron la orden de retirarse de la zona y unirse en mar abierto al resto de la flota de batalla de Yamamoto. [173], Two enlisted men from Mikuma were rescued from a life raft on 9 June by USS Trout and taken to Pearl Harbor. Most significantly, American cryptographers were able to determine the date and location of the planned attack, enabling the forewarned U.S. Navy to prepare its own ambush. Este pequeño grupo de élite estaba conformado por veteranos preparados y endurecidos para los combates de la época. El ataque a Midway —al igual que el de Pearl Harbor— no era parte de un plan para conquistar los Estados Unidos, sino que su objetivo era eliminar las fuerzas navales estadounidense del Pacífico y evitar su intervención en la campaña japonesa en el este y sudeste asiático. [96], Waldron's squadron sighted the enemy carriers and began attacking at 09:20, followed at 09:40[97] by VF-6 from Enterprise, whose Wildcat fighter escorts lost contact, ran low on fuel, and had to turn back. [188] In the time it took Japan to build three carriers, the U.S. Navy commissioned more than two dozen fleet and light fleet carriers, and numerous escort carriers. Lo on 10 October 1944 to clear the name Midway for a large fleet aircraft carrier,[200] USS Midway (CV-41), which was commissioned on 10 September 1945, eight days after the Japanese surrender, and is now docked in San Diego, California, as the USS Midway Museum. (27 de abril de 2005). Anexo:Orden de batalla de la batalla de Midway, «A Brief History of Aircraft Carriers: Battle of Midway», «Oil and Japanese Strategy in the Solomons: A Postulate», «What If Japan Had Won The Battle of Midway?», «Battle of Midway: Repairing the Yorktown After the Battle of the Coral Sea», «After Midway: The Fates of the U.S. and Japanese Warships», Mover la guerra. [106] The appearance of a third torpedo plane attack from the southeast by VT-3 from Yorktown, led by LCDR Lance Edward Massey at 10:00 very quickly drew the majority of the Japanese CAP to the southeast quadrant of the fleet. Por razones que aún no están claras, Nagumo no modificó sus planes ni tomó precauciones adicionales.[63]​. [26]​ Dentro de 24 horas, los decodificadores interceptaron un mensaje japonés que decía que «AF tenía poca agua». Parshall, Jonathan; Tully, Anthony (2005). His design was also predicated on optimistic intelligence suggesting that USS Enterprise and USS Hornet, forming Task Force 16, were the only carriers available to the U.S. Pacific Fleet. Nimitz calculó que las aeronaves de sus tres portaaviones más los estacionados en Midway, le daban una cantidad más o menos igual a la de los cuatro portaaviones de Yamamoto, principalmente porque los grupos aeroembarcados estadounidenses eran más grandes que los japoneses. Even if Nagumo had not strictly followed carrier doctrine, he could not have prevented the launch of the American attack. Esta táctica, a pesar de disminuir el volumen del impacto de los ataques hacia los japoneses y acarrear grandes perdidas para los estadounidenses, tuvo el mérito de lograr desorganizar la capacidad de contraataque nipona y encontrarse totalmente vulnerables a los portaaviones de Nagumo.[78]​[79]​[80]​. However, considering the increased strength of American land-based airpower on the Hawaiian Islands since the 7 December attack the previous year, he judged that it was now too risky to attack Pearl Harbor directly. The Japanese repelled these attacks, losing three fighters while destroying five TBFs, two SB2Us, eight SBDs, and two B-26s. Mikuma was eventually sunk by Dauntlesses,[142] while Mogami survived further severe damage to return home for repairs.